Modeling thin air
A pioneer in studies linking the Earthís climate to the Sun and upper atmosphere, Ray Roble over his career has created a hierarchy of models that extend from 30 to 500 kilometers above the Earth, out to the thinnest layers of atmosphere bordering space. In 1985, his Thermospheric General Circulation Model, or TGCM (developed jointly with Cicely Ridley and Robert Dickenson), carried out its first simulation of a solar stormís effects. The model has been continually refined over the years and is still used by dozens of university scientists. Parts of the model have been incorporated into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, which spans the Earthís surface to the thermosphere.